Canis lupus italicus. it reappeared in Italy. The distribution area of the wolf has undergone drastic reductions in recent centuries as a result of direct persecution by man, loss and fragmentation of suitable habitats and reduction of prey species. In Italy the spread of the species reached a negative peak in the second half of the 20° century, but the protection regime granted since 1971, which prohibited its hunting, together with the human depopulation of mountain areas and the increase of wild ungulates, allowed a numerical increase in the population and the recolonization of the whole Apennines up to the coastal areas, including the whole of Tuscany and parts of the Alps. Starting from 2011 some specimens have been filmed in the Apuan Alps with camera traps. Only in 2014, however, the reproduction of a herd was ascertained for the first time, thanks to the response of puppies induced by the transmission of recorded calls (wolf-howling). The National Wolf Monitoring coordinated by ISPRA is underway for the first time in Italy.